Process Routes for 2nd Generation Ethanol fuel

Two different routes can be taken to produce second generation bio-ethanol. Both are able to produce the same final product but require completely different capital equipment and have different advantages and disadvantages.

The first route is the thermochemical route in which the biomass is gasified in a gasification process to produce synthetic gas comprising of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. The syn gas is then either bubbled through a specially designed fermenter in which genetically engineered organisms convert the syngas to ethanol. Otherwise the syngas is fed into a reactor containing a catalyst responsible for converting the gas into fuel ethanol.

The second route is via the biochemical route in which the biomass is first pretreated to expose and open up the lignocellulosic matrix to enzymatic attack. Following pretreatment, enzymes hydrolysis available carbohydrates into sugar monomers which are then fermented to ethanal. The final product from ethanol is then distilled to seperate out the ethanol which will be utilised as fuel ethanol. A number of pretreatment strategies as well as seperate and combined enzymatic hydrolysis strategies are available for this process route.



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